eight key rules for forming plurals in English grammar

Standard Rule: Add -s to most nouns. – Example: cat → cats, book → books

Nouns ending in -s, -x, -z, -ch, or -sh: Add -es. – Example: bus → buses, box → boxes, church → churches

Nouns ending in a consonant + y: Change the y to i and add -es. – Example: baby → babies, city → cities

Nouns ending in a vowel + y: Simply add -s. – Example: boy → boys, day → days

Nouns ending in -f or -fe: Change the f to v and add -es. – Example: leaf → leaves, wife → wives – Note: Some exceptions simply add -s: roof → roofs, belief → beliefs

Irregular nouns: These nouns have unique plural forms. – Example: child → children, man → men, mouse → mice

Nouns ending in -o: Add -es for some nouns and -s for others. – Example: potato → potatoes, hero → heroes (add -es) – Example: photo → photos, piano → pianos (add -s)

Compound nouns: Pluralize the principal word. – Example: mother-in-law → mothers-in-law, passerby → passersby