9 confusing ways to pluralize words

Irregular -y endings: Words ending in consonant-y typically add "-ies," while vowel-y usually gets just "-s." (city = cities, baby = babies)

Sneaky -o endings: Most "-o" words turn to "-es" (tomato = tomatoes), but some borrow plurals like "pianos" or go rogue with "-s" (photo)

Vowel-changing rebels: A few words defy logic, transforming vowels entirely. (foot = feet, tooth = teeth)

The same stays the same:  Some rebels refuse to change at all (sheep, deer, aircraft).

 Latin and Greek throwbacks: Borrowed terms often keep their original plurals (crisis = crises, appendix = appendices)

 Doubles or nothing:  Some "-f" or "-fe" words double the consonant before "-s" (wife = wives, knife = knives), while others play it safe with a single "-s" (roof = roofs, proof = proofs)

Compound confusion: Hyphenated words can be tricky. Follow the main noun's rule (mother-in-law = mothers-in-law, but bookcase = bookcases)

Nouns masquerading as verbs:  Some verbs double as nouns, taking a simple "-s" (a match = ten matches, to plan = detailed plans)

Collective nouns acting plural: Singular collective nouns (team, committee) can sometimes be treated as plural when referring to the members' actions (The team won. The committee argued)